Quantum Dot-based panel shipments are forecast to grow from 3M shipments in 2018 to 31M shipments by 2025 representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 40%, according to DSCC. The report provides both technical and market information about various QD architectures for use in display including QDEF, QDOG, QD OLED, QNED and EL QDs.

There are several different types of Quantum dots (QDs) that are useful for display applications: - CdSe, InP, ZnSe, ZnTeSe and Halide Perovskites. Cadmium (Cd)-based quantum dots were historically the first type of QDs used for displays. CdSe based QDs have been shown to have high efficiencies > 90% in solution with narrow FWHM < 35 nm. However, use of Cd based QDs is regulated by the European Union’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive for environmental toxicity forcing leading panel manufacturers such as Samsung to go Cd free for all their QLED products. Although exemptions are on-going, these restrictions saw the emergence of Cd free alternatives such as InP, ZnSe, ZnSTeSe and other novel materials such as perovskites.

InP is currently the second-best alternative to Cd QDs for red and green. Even though high efficiencies have been demonstrated, the FWHM of CdSe QDs is still better than InP; especially for green. In addition, the absorption of Cd-based QDs are higher than their InP counterparts, which is important in applications like QD color conversion/color filter. Zn-based QDs show promise for blue emission mainly for use in electroluminescent device architectures. Halide perovskites, mainly lead-based, have shown superior efficiencies and very narrow FWHMs for green and have been constantly improving in reliability. Although lead is also regulated by RoHS, the tolerance level of lead usage is an order of magnitude higher than that of Cd by weight. In summary, a lot of progress has been made in Cd-free QDs.

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